Internet Gaming Disorder: The Damaging Effects of Screen Addictions

Internet gaming disorder, as discussed here , is a new diagnosis for a problem that an increasing – and disturbing – number of adolescents and adults are experiencing. IGD, an acronym for internet gaming disorder, is defined as “a pattern of excessive and prolonged internet gaming that results in a cluster of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.”

We can’t deny that technology is huge part of our modern lives, yet we need to be cautious of spending more and more of our time gazing at screens, as there can be serious negative effects. IGD occurs in some cases when a person loses control over gaming.

Screen addictions have negative social consequences in two ways: the individual neglects their existing relationships and fails to form new ones, both because gaming requires all of their time and because it interferes with the development of effective social skills.

Research is conflicted as to whether playing violent video games increases violent behavior, but it is common for intense gamers to become agitated and aggressive when family members attempt to intervene. Those with IGD also suffer the effects of sleep deprivation, such as inability to concentrate, mood swings, and poor judgment.

Neuroimaging studies have been undertaken to look into how excessive internet gaming affects brain development, which is especially important for young gamers. Gray matter atrophy in the frontal lobe and reduced cortical thickness signal a decreased ability to plan, prioritize, and just generally get stuff done. The study also found damage to the insula, which is important for having healthy relationships with others.

The disparity between digital immigrants and digital natives can make communicating between generations difficult, as individuals in each group have unique perspectives. Recognizing the potential problems and coming up with a consistent strategy will help parents deal with their gamer children.

On that note, parents can take steps to prevent and deal with their children’s screen habits and ameliorate any addictive behavior. The following are some recommendations:

  • Develop home guidelines around the use of technology early in your child’s life, writing down what you and your child agree to;
  • Stipulate that homework is completed before computer/gaming time, in order to frame computer/gaming time as a reward instead of a right;
  • Parents must have password (with no one else given access to passwords, even friends);
  • All electronics must be “turned in” to parents at night (to prevent late-night gaming);
  • Reinforce the idea that smart phones are a privilege, not a right; and
  • Require that the computer is used in public places such as the kitchen, where it can be monitored continuously.

Keep in mind that these recommendations will only work if they are enforced continuously. Furthermore, seek out opportunities for your child to be ‘unplugged’ with healthy activities such as sports, art, and outdoor recreation. Technology is here to stay, and it can definitely be a blessing. With careful monitoring, we can keep it from also becoming a curse.

Internet Gaming Disorder: What is it?

Recent studies have shown that 8-18 year olds devote about 53 hours a week to screen time. Many psychologists, particularly child development experts, believe so much time in front of a computer screen is harmful. So, let’s review the facts. 

It used to be exciting just to chat using Skype or Facetime, and now almost any question can be answered with a few pulses on a screen that doesn’t even require real buttons. Technology is evolving at an ever-increasing rate, and accompanying the digital evolution are advantages and disadvantages.

Because it has advanced so quickly, there is a distinct generational difference in a person’s relationship to technology. Generation Xers are digital immigrants, born before its widespread adoption. Generation Y/Millenials, i.e. those born between 1980 and 1995, are digital natives, who’ve been interacting with digital technology since childhood.
sleep-cell-phone

The digital immigrant/digital native difference is important because digital natives are so comfortable that they are likely to ignore its potential negative effects.

And as time goes on, we are seeing children – and adults – spend more and more time looking at screens. In sync with these developments, a disorder known as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has come to be recognized by psychologists. IGD is defined as a pattern of excessive and prolonged internet gaming that results in a cluster of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

Notably, IGD bears a troubling resemblance to the DSM-5 definition of substance addiction: “behavior that continues despite adverse consequences.”

An individual dealing with IGD will progressively lose control over gaming, devoting at least 30 hours a week to it, and might even lie to family members or therapists regarding the amount of time spent gaming. They might use internet games to escape or relieve a negative mood. In fact, they also might dream about it, become obsessed with it when at school or work (yes, adults can get addicted too!)

The table below illustrates some of the symptoms and consequences of IGD.

SIGNS and SYMPTOMS

CONSEQUENCES

  • Giving up previously preferred activities
  • Losing sleep
  • Neglecting hygiene
  • Increased arguments with parents
  • School failure
  • Job loss
  • Marriage failure
  • Students show declining grades    or eventual school failure
  • Family responsibilities neglected

 

Further, an individual with this disorder will often show tolerance and withdrawal symptoms analogous to substance abuse disorder. This leads them to continue gaming despite knowledge of growing problems in the non-virtual world. These problems might include bargaining and deal-making to extend time, threats when taken away, and sneaky and manipulative behavior in an effort to continue playing or engaging in the games/technology.

All in all, an internet or gaming addiction needs be taken addressed and taken seriously. For more information and some concrete steps to take, check my next post on specific psychological problems caused by IGD and how parents can work on preventing it.

PsychoEducational Evaluations: What are they, exactly?

As discussed in this post, it’s important to consider scheduling a psychoeducational evaluation if a parent or a teacher believes that something is impeding a child’s learning. In spite of how often all of us search on Google, it’s not enough to type into a browser, “How to tell if my child has a learning disorder.”

DIY diagnosis, as this article clearly spells out, is not appropriate for complex issues such as those that impact learning.

The suspicion and diagnosis of a learning disorder means several things. First of all, “learning disorder” is a very wide umbrella, as these disabilities can be academic or non-academic. Psychoeducational evaluations are designed not to point out flaws, but to gather facts about your child, identify learning strengths and weaknesses, and create a strategy to help them grow into their best selves.

Learning disorders are more common than you might think. Oscar winner Octavia Spencer recently noted in an interview that she deals with dyslexia, and pointed out how it’s been a factor in her transition from film to television. Like many others, she is successful despite this challenge.

Testing may be recommended to determine the appropriate teaching environment, level of performance, and need for accommodations. The testing is a process used to confirm or rule out specific cognitive or learning disabilities or a developmental delay, as well as ADD or ADHD, language and communication difficulties, phonological (auditory), processing and visual-perceptual difficulties, and other underlying factors contributing to behavioral and emotional concerns.

Children as early as kindergarten and first grade frequently demonstrate the early markers of learning struggles. Therefore, it’s important to evaluate early in order to identify and remediate issues before the child experiences significant problems in school and frustration, anxiety or feelings of failure.

What happens during psycho-educational testing? Rest assured that tests are conducted by a well-trained psychologist with hundreds of hours of training and studies that lead to proper diagnosis and treatment.

A psychoeducational evaluation can be difficult to visualize. The evaluation process begins with an in-depth interview with the parent or guardian to identify concerns, discuss the history of the problem and what has been tried, and review academic performance, test scores, etc. The actual testing process takes 4 to 8 hours, which are usually broken up into several sessions.

It’s impossible to say exactly what the testing will consist of here, because it all depends on the child in question. The results of the first round of tests may indicate which resources are used in the subsequent sessions. Although each is tailored to the specific needs and concerns of your child, the testing will likely entail some combination of the following elements:
Standardized tests, which include measures of:

  • Cognitive and intellectual functioning;
  • Academic achievement;
  • Visual-motor skills;
  • Memory and learning tasks;
  • Emotional and behavioral inventories, and
  • Personality measures.

A psychologist may also utilize:

  • Rating scales;
  • Self-report scales;
  • Observations in familiar settings, and
  • Interviews.

After the process is complete, the psychologist will review the report with the parents, who can, in turn, discuss it with teachers, coaches and others who interact with the child. It will include an explanation of the testing procedure and background information, as well as a summary of the results and their interpretation. Finally, it will contain some recommendations about special services and actions that might be appropriate and which teaching methods will be best.

In this process, there is no such thing as a dumb question. The intent is to identify priorities for intervention and a strategy as well as a partnership whose only goal is to figure out the best path to success for a child.

Psychological Evaluations: What You Don’t Learn on Criminal Minds

Viewers regularly see characters on television getting something called ‘a psych eval,’ including investigators on shows like Criminal Minds and Bones. They never quite explain what it is, though.

Emily Prentiss, the star of Criminal Minds, twists the truth when answering questions from an unseen department psychologist after seeing her friend killed, her mental health assured by the fact that she is seeing a new man, Sergio (which is actually the name of her cat).
But did she pass or did she fail?

The term ‘psych eval’ (as presented in popular culture) is a very openly defined sort of test that characters have to pass. Setting aside plot, it’s not clear why these evaluations are even occurring. Where’s the sign that says ‘evaluation needed?’

In reality, when kids are having trouble in school, teachers and guidance counselors also suggest a psychological evaluation to the parents. The detection and treatment of learning issues requires a good deal of advanced knowledge, and it’s critical to seek a professional.

As many as 1 in 5 people in the United States may have a learning disorder. These can first be recognized clinically around 7 or 8 years of age, but there is no one sign that indicates a learning disability. A psychoeducational evaluation is designed to recognize them.
Here are some general red flags:

  • If a teacher suspects the child has a learning issue;
  • A child that isn’t performing to their academic potential, or keeping up with their peers;
  • A child who continues to struggle despite additional help or alternative learning strategies, and
  • “Acting out” or misbehavior, which often stems from frustration.

One example comes to mind. This young man was from a loving, extended family of high-achieving individuals, yet he was the black sheep who struggled in spite of natural intelligence. Neither of the two medical professionals in the family circle picked up on the reason for the maladjustment. It was a tutor, brought in during 10th grade to help ensure admission to a good college, who suspected his under-performance was related to a learning issue.

After testing and identification of the issue, Barry’s educational team began to tailor study sessions and introduce note-taking skills to address his issue. Barry, whose name has been changed to protect his privacy, went on to near straight-As in his last two years of high school, and he gained admission to his college of choice.

Many issues can require a psycho-educational evaluation, and many issues that occur in a classroom can be attributed to a learning disorder. It takes a skilled professional to accurately diagnose the issue and create a treatment strategy. Similarly, it’s taken years and years of research to form the evaluations used by psychologists today.

The good news is the opportunity and information necessary to address these problems are now available to parents.

I encourage every parent to arm themselves with as much knowledge as possible – and with a carefully chosen treatment team – in order to help their learner get to the brightest possible future.

What Graham Moore, Academy Award-Winning Writer, Got Right about Depression

One of the most compelling speeches at the Oscars this year was delivered by Graham Moore, winner of Best Adapted Screenplay for the film The Imitation Game. You may already have seen or read his words, which can be found here. In front of a worldwide audience of millions, he brought up the important issue of depression, which anywhere from 2%-8% of young people experience. He said:

In this brief time here, I want to say this: “When I was 16 years old, I tried to kill myself because I felt weird and I felt different and I felt like I did not belong. And now I am standing here, and I would like this moment to be for that kid out there who feels like she’s weird or she’s different or she doesn’t fit in anywhere. Yes, you do. I promise you do.”

Bravo, Mr. Moore, for speaking for so many who suffer with depression and giving hope to a worldwide audience that it can get better.

Being a kid is hard. Mr. Moore’s experience is not unusual, but, as he points out, it doesn’t always feel that way. Certain combinations of genetics and temperament combined with environmental factors put children at risk for depression. For example, the risk increases 2-4 fold for girls after puberty. Many adolescents even have subclinical depression, meaning that while they would not be officially diagnosed, they still experience significant or persistent symptoms.

The disorder involves at least two weeks of persistent depressed/irritable mood and loss of interest, as well as a change in appetite and sleep, decreased energy and motivation, increased guilt feelings, decreased concentration, and suicidal thoughts. Children in particular may exhibit irritability and anger or tantrums as well as physical symptoms.

Depression can be deadly. For instance, Major Depressive Disorder has a high recurrence rate, and 60% of children who suffer from it experience suicidal thoughts. Many have attempted suicide.

One of the more astute reactions to Robin Williams’ death last summer came from those who did not share the news by saying he died of suicide. They said, rather, that he died of depression. This is not a spin doctor’s take; in fact, it is a far more truthful explanation.

What Mr. Moore and many of us who treat people with depression want is to bring this issue to light, and to be honest to each other about how prevalent depression is. Fortunately, there are also effective treatments.

First, however, we as parents or adults need to recognize the red flags and act on them. These include:

  • Sadness, agitation, restlessness, anger or severe mood changes; especially when they persist more than 6 months;
  • Weight loss or gain;
  • Fatigue and loss of energy;
  • Sleep problems;
  • Withdrawal and loss of interest;
  • Drop in grades and academic performance, and
  • Legal problems.

Talking to children about depression can be difficult and effective treatment often takes some time. However, it is of the utmost importance that we do so. One key step is letting go of any stigma attached to this problem and consciously choosing to help our children learn strategies to cope with depression. If we do so, we may be giving them the most important gift of all.